De Saint Thomas D'Aquin

De Saint Thomas D’Aquin

    Quizá hayas visto ya algunas de estas fotografías. El 11 del pasado octubre se abrió en el Metropolitan Museum de Nueva York la exposición Altéralo. La fotografía manipulada antes de Photoshop. Desde entonces muchas páginas se han hecho eco de la noticia repitiendo una y otra vez algunas de las fotografías más espectaculares. Lo que demuestra la exposición es que el retoque fotográfico, que nació al mismo tiempo que la fotografía, no es sólo quitarse unas manchitas de la cara o unos kilitos de más. El retoque ha tenido muchas funciones para los aficionados al cuarto oscuro. Por motivos estéticos pero también políticos. Por publicidad o por el mero hecho de explorar las posibilidades de un medio que acababa de nacer. O por puro juego. Un juego que tiene mucho de magia. Que se recrea en el placer que genera la incongruencia entre lo que el ojo ve y lo que la mente sabe. Asombro, escepticismo y curiosidad en blanco y negro. Lo mismo que hizó George Méliès, vamos.

    Los temas no pueden ser más bizarros: individuos fotografiados frente a su propio doble o incluso triple; decapitaciones, a veces mezcladas con dobles ‒el propio Méliès tiene un cortometraje sobre el tema‒; fotografías de espíritus reunidos con sus familiares vivos; personajes diminutos, como hombres en botellas de vidrio o mujeres en copas; o gigantones, y en realidad todo lo gigante, incluyendo animales y verduras.

    Este tipo de fotografías se remonta a la década de los 50 del siglo XIX. Aunque no es hasta la década de los 90 ‒de ese mismo siglo‒ que pasó a causar furor en las revistas de fotografía y de divulgación científica. En las dos primeras décadas del siglo XX estos montajes se empezaron a a producir en serie y a comercializar en EEUU en forma de postales. El maestro de este género fue William H. Martin, que se popularizó con sus extravagantes montajes agrícolas. En 1894 alquiló un estudio en Ottawa y en tres años consiguió hacerse millonario con sus postales.


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A. M. Allen A. M. Allen
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A Pair of Hungry Pike A Pair of Hungry Pike
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Claude A. Bromley Claude A. Bromley
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Ein kräftiger Zusammenstoss Ein kräftiger Zusammenstoss
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Family in front of Niagara Falls Family in front of Niagara Falls
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Family in front of Whirlpool Rapids, Niagara Falls Family in front of Whirlpool Rapids, Niagara Falls
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Frederick Sommer Frederick Sommer
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Halstead-DoubleSelfPortraitWithCamera Halstead-DoubleSelfPortraitWithCamera
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Howard S. Redell Howard S. Redell
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En la botella En la botella
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Lámpara Lámpara
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Zeppeling Zeppeling
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Barbudos Barbudos
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K. Himmelreich K. Himmelreich
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Man on Rooftop with Eleven Men in Formation on His Shoulders Man on Rooftop with Eleven Men in Formation on His Shoulders
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Maurice Guibert Maurice Guibert
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One of Our Annual Stock Sales One of Our Annual Stock Sales
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Saint Thomas D'Aquin Saint Thomas D'Aquin
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Same Man Three Times Same Man Three Times
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Scene of Murder and Decapitation Scene of Murder and Decapitation
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Un Coup de Pompe Un Coup de Pompe
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William H. Martin William H. Martin
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William H. Martin William H. Martin
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William Robert Bowles William Robert Bowles